In 2021 we asked Skimm’rs about their plans to vote in the 2022 midterm elections. And 91% of millennial women surveyed said they’d most likely vote. That’s significantly higher than the 66.8% of Americans who voted in the 2020 presidential election — which was the highest voter turnout of the 21st century. But today, only 20% of Americans say they’re confident in our electoral system.
So how did we get to this point? Well, a lot has happened to the state of elections and voting rights since 2020. Let’s dive in.
The state of elections and voting rights
After former president Donald Trump lost the 2020 election, he and his allies made baseless claims of widespread voter fraud. Which led to the Jan. 6 insurrection. And even more distrust in our electoral system: After the insurrection, 56% of Republicans said they still believed that the election was rigged or the result of illegal voting. Not to mention that some are still trying to prove the false claims of voter fraud.
As a result, legislatures across the country have responded by passing restrictive voting laws — many in the name of “election integrity.” (Worth noting: There has been no evidence of widespread voter fraud.) Texas added new requirements for mail-in voting and banned drive-thru and 24-hour voting.Meanwhile Georgia made it a crime to hand out food and water to voters waiting in line. And Florida made it harder for voters to get an absentee ballot. That’s on top of instances of voter intimidation at the polls.In Washington, signs warning voters that they were “under surveillance” were placed around ballot boxes.In Arizona, groups organized “stakeouts” at local drop boxes to catch people they claim are submitting fake early voting ballots, according to the New York Times.
But restrictive voting laws and voter intimidation aren’t the only tactics being used to manipulate elections. Yup, you guessed it: gerrymandering (aka when elected officials redraw district maps in a way that favors one political party). While both Democrats and Republicans have been accused of the practice, rigged maps tend to be most common in states under Republican control (See: Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Ohio). That’s in part because the GOP had a huge win in the 2010 midterms — which gave them an advantage in redrawing maps. And last year, they led the redistricting process in about 20 states (compared to 8 when Dems were in the driver's seat), which could give Republicans a big edge in the midterms. Especially in an election where they are expected to take back control of the House.
But Dems have criticized these efforts.Which explains why some blue states have tried to make it easier to vote (see: Colorado and Vermont).And why Dems tried to pass a bill that combined the John Lewis Voting Rights Advancement Act and the Freedom to Vote Act. Which would’ve established federal standards for mail-in voting and drop boxes, expanded early voting, allowed same-day voter registration, and more. That legislation passed the House, but failed in the Senate.
So what laws protect voting rights?
For now, these are some of the amendments and laws that protect voting rights:
The 15th Amendment: It gave Black men the right to vote. Though many states put racist voting laws in place (like literacy tests)to restrict this right. And many voter restrictions today still impact minority voting rights.
The 19th Amendment: It gave women the right to vote.But women of color still faced barriers to voting.
The 24th Amendment: It eliminated poll taxes — one of many efforts to discourage Black people from voting.
The 26th Amendment: It set the voting age to 18.
The Civil Rights Act of 1870: Enacted to enforce the 15th Amendment. It made it illegal to deny someone the right to vote based on race.
The Civil Rights Act of 1957: Created the US Commission on Civil Rights, established a civil rights unit in the Justice Dept, and authorized the Attorney General to “seek federal court injunctions” to protect the voting rights of Black Americans.
The Civil Rights Act of 1960: Allowed federal inspections of “local voter registration rolls”and court-appointed referees to help Black people register and vote. Plus, it outlined penalties for preventing someone from voting.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964: Prohibited discrimination based on race, religion, sex, or national origin, including at the polls.
The Civil Rights Act of 1965: Outlawed voter discrimination based on race or language spoken by prohibiting literacy tests. Plus, it placed limitations on states with a history of voter discrimination (though SCOTUS overturned this in 2013).
The National Voter Registration Act of 1993: Established other ways to register to vote, like creating a national mail voter registration form. And required states to keep “more accurate voter registration lists.”
The Help America Vote Act of 2002: Allocated federal money for elections (think: election administration and replacing voting systems) and created the US Election Assistance Commission.
Power players: Who actually has control
Every state has a chief election official who has authority over elections in their state. That could be someone selected by the state legislature or appointed by the governor. That could be the elected secretary of state, as is the case in 24 states. That could be a board or commission, as is the case in nine states.
But many other elected positions can directly impact your state's voting policies, like the governor and attorney general. Plus, at the local level, your county clerk plays a role. (Learn more about these positions and others here.)
Races to watch
Your vote could have implications beyond November. Think: Future elections. So here are some of the ballot measures and races to focus on:
Michigan: A proposed voting initiative could appear on the Nov. ballot. And it would guarantee a minimum of nine days for early voting, broaden the state’s use of ballot drop boxes, and more.
Georgia’s Gubernatorial Race:
Stakes: If Abrams is elected, it could change the direction of voting laws and rights across the state.
What to know: Abrams has made a name for herself as a champion of voting rights. And her 2022 run for governor is no exception.Some of her campaign promises include ending gerrymandering and the “arbitrary” rejection of ballots, as well as allowing voter registration on Election Day. Meanwhile Kemp (who, reminder, Abrams also ran against in 2018) signed a law that restricted voting by mail and gave more control over elections to legislators.
Michigan’s Secretary of State Race
Stakes: Karamo is one of many election deniers running for office. And if she’s elected, she’d have a direct role in how elections are carried out in the state.
What to know: Karamo believes that there was widespread voter fraud in the 2020 presidential election. Because she claimed ballots were allegedly illegally tallied for President Biden when she volunteered as a poll worker. And she’s made investigating fraud claims, election security, and election integrity some of her main priorities.
Pennsylvania’s Gubernatorial Race:
Stakes: Mastriano is another 2020 election denier.And in Pennsylvania, the governor appoints the secretary of state who oversees elections.
What to know: Not only does Mastriano believe there was widespread voter fraud in the 2020 presidential election, but he also attended the Jan. 6 insurrection.That’s why Mastriano wants to end all contracts with “compromised voting machine companies,” eliminate “no-excuse mail-in voting,” and ban ballot drop boxes. Shapiro, on the other hand, says he wants to “ensure access to the ballot box” and would veto bills that’d restrict mail-in voting.
The right to vote is a fundamental right in the US. And now, candidates for state offices across the country are trying to strip it away, under the guise of election integrity.
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